Prostate specific antigen, or PSA, is a protein that is produced in the prostate. Elevated levels of prostate specific antigens can often, but not always, indicate prostate cancer, and can help be an early indicator. It is important for men to undergo regular prostate exams to screen for prostate cancer because if it is caught early, it is often treatable.
Elevated PSA can be diagnosed through a simple blood test that can be performed by a primary care physician to detect an increased level of PSA in the blood. If the physician determines the results are concerning, they will refer the patient to a urologist for further examination. The urologist will likely perform a prostate biopsy.
The forms of treatment will correspond with the outcome of the urologist’s examination. If they find via biopsy that no cancer is present, the patient may just be asked to return periodically so they can be watched. If cancer is found to be present, the urologist will discuss different routes of treatment for that patient’s specific case.